Dearest Agha, Thursday, July 26, 2005
As we take our stance and swing forward the writer gave his summary of history by quoting very renowned thinkers with what they had said about progress and development. Namely, August Comte on sociology and his later views affirmed by Turgot. Comte actually thought of human life to be in three stages. First, the theological and fictitious which is provisional then metaphysics and abstract which is second and transitional, thirdly the positive which is scientific and definitive. There is also some mention of C.V.Langlois who was apparently a great historian warning mankind to not include sociology with biology to explain the evolutionary man. He has then given his portentous criticism on other thinkers few of which thought of progress and development in the life of man in five stages, two stages and then some for confusing their views by strong verbs but lacking substance. He commented ardently to Robert Owen since he was a social thinker and hoped for a social system that would ensure happiness for everyone and how Herder reflected positively by human kind blossoming like fruits and flowers one day. Then there is Kant federation and Fichte’s deduction. So he struggles to grapple previously held differentiation in theories given by philosophers of the past. Some foresaw progress and others an eventual cataclysm on the course of mankind on travel. He is also intrusive and mopes that a personality is a very important segment and such a tool that can raise one on a pulpit or throw off it and with repercussions for people around him.
His final survey of everything is interesting when he describes the transformation and migration of knowledge from one civilization to another because this is where an important time frame and people have been figured with broken links. Before I explicate, would like to add that he has been peremptorily truthful if I compare my analysis with previously read material. He started from Egyptian and Babylonian empire. They prosperity lies in their monetary secrecy but retrograded because of military and conservative class precepts. The empire did outstandingly well in Astronomy not like that of Maj. Arshad, Art and third I can’t remember. But their legacies and learning was ramified into Assyrians. The Hebrews and Greeks also intervened in issues of Assyrians. The Phoenicians also did much trade with them and greatly attributed to expansion “Gibran’s country was also divided by Romans into Phoenicia-Syria and Syria-Palestine”. Meanwhile, Greeks “drama, poetry and tragedy very admirable but with class and race struggle, slavery (Plato was also sold as a slave)” and Hebrews also inherited much from Persian (Cyrus, Mani, Firdousi, Nosherwan) empire who remained Zoroaster. Persia was very mystic and Christianity derived much influence in their metaphysics from them which was passed from Roman Empire into Constantinople. We will come to that after Rome. So Hebrews immigrated without any visa or passport in to the Roman Empire along with the rucksack of mysticism and earlier ideologies. Romans were brigands, exploiters, despotic and their empire expanded commendably. After the fall of Romans the Hebrews went every where one book indicating Germania but this one Constantinople. The period of Constantinople was after Jesus. The missionary zeal was valued much perhaps with places being built. Anyhow, Greek terminologies were passed to Constantinople who came in contact with the east Mediterraneans where formation of Byzantine took place. The Byzantine actually effectuated Russia and chimes in churches resonated. The University of Constantinople preserved many Greek materials and upon expansion of Islam they were moved to Baghdad albeit Islam was unable to contain it due to fundamentals of extremism even then. Averroes came under Achilles heel of Mullahs and had to take exile in Spain where Maimonide who was a Jew barraged the frontiers of Europe in science studies as per Bertie’s remnants in western history of philosophy.
In my next email I will give review on effects of Confucianism, Taoism and Budhism in China with blend of India.